This article was published by the McAlvany Intelligence Advisor on Monday, December 2, 2019:

This writer published an article here in November (see Sources below) outlining the risks of investing in Aramco’s IPO. Lest there be any confusion on the matter, neither that article nor this one is intended to be investment advice.*

This follow-up article will let the facts and the risks speak for themselves. Putting it simply: because of those facts and risks, the Crown Prince is likely to be sorely disappointed with the final results of his IPO when it comes to market on December 11.

Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) thought back in that he could sell a tiny piece of his country’s crown jewel, the Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Aramco) and raise $100 billion. He had big plans to invest those proceeds in diversifying his country’s economy away from its near total reliance upon oil revenues for its sustenance and maintenance of its welfare state.

Now, however, he’ll be lucky to get a quarter of that. And most of what he gets will come from pressure, threats, intimidation, and manipulation.

Here are some (not all) of the risks investors will be assuming if they decide to take a ride on the IPO:

  • Aramco’s reserves aren’t as large as originally thought;
  • Its profits are lower than expected;
  • Its production facilities are vulnerable to attacks;
  • It has manipulated the numbers on the company’s balance sheet to make it appear more attractive to investors than it really is;
  • Fitch Ratings cut its credit rating following the murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi last October (under MBS’s watch);
  • Most of those investing in his company are doing it out of threats and intimidation;
  • International banking firms handling the offering are in it for the fees and not in the best interests of investors;
  • Those fees (legal, accounting, marketing, etc.) are huge;
  • The funds that are raised are more likely to be used not to fund MBS’s grand Vision 2030 but to keep the country’s from expanding even further;
  • The offering will be placed on the tiny Saudi Stock Exchange (aka Tadawul), which boasts a miniscule 192 companies listed. This compares to the New York Stock Exchange where shares of more than 2,500 companies are traded daily;
  • The decision to use Tadawul instead of the NYSE reflects MBS’ unwillingness to do a complete disclosure of the offering’s risks that would otherwise be required; and
  • The future of oil prices is increasingly uncertain (due to tariffs, a slowing global economy, the rise of hybrid and electric vehicles, etc.) making any valuation of the company uncertain.

The offering’s 600-page prospectus has revealed a few of those risks. First is the increasing likelihood that the funds won’t be invested in MBS’s grand scheme after all, but instead would be subject to the whims, necessities, and changing “directions” of MBS and his government:

The government may direct the company to undertake projects or provide assistance for initiatives outside [of Aramco’s] core business, which may or may not be consistent with the company’s immediate commercial objectives or profit maximization.

Got that? MBS is free to spend, invest, or divert any proceeds from the offering in any way he chooses, which may not be in the best interests of its new investors!

Second, the potential for future oil field attacks: “ and armed conflict may materially and adversely affect” the company’s operations. The September 14 attack took half of the company’s production temporarily off line, forcing the company to – ready? – import oil in order to feed its domestic refineries, and, as the Wall Street Journal expressed it, “ensure it exported its own products [in order] to [satisfy its own] customers’ demands.”

Most of the so-called “demand” for shares of the company has been ginned up by threats by MBS to his Saudi “partners” that if they don’t invest heavily in Aramco he could reopen investigations into their corruption.

Just 10 percent of the bids for shares have so far come from non-Saudi investors, which leaves the door open for price manipulation. Said Gary Ross, CEO of Black Gold Investors: “Selling a small piece of Aramco in a captive market gives [the prince] more control to prop up the value of Aramco over its fair value.” Agreeing with Ross that the potential exists for price manipulation due to that “captive market,” Rory Fyfe, managing director at Mena Advisors, warned: “With domestic players being strong-armed into investing, international investors are … going to have to value this well below the expectations of [the crown prince].”

A few days after the “road show” ends on Wednesday, the company will then tell the world what the initial offering price will be when shares are finally offered to the public through its tiny and captive Tadawul stock exchange on December 11.

Expect those final numbers to be a great disappointment to the Crown Prince, as international institutional investors are staying away from the offering in droves.


* The purpose of this website is not to give financial advice, and nothing written here should be considered to be of an advisory nature. This story and all others are presented based on their newsworthiness alone. Invest or not as you see fit. We are not advising and will not later advise you to buy or sell any given investment.


McAlvany Intelligence AdvisorRun, Do Not Walk, Away from the Aramco IPO (November 18, 2019)

The Wall Street JournalAramco IPO Draws Bids of $44.3 Billion, as Global Investors Steer Clear

The Wall Street JournalAramco’s Profit Slide Shows Scale of Risk for Investors

Tadawul, the Saudi’s stock exchange (192 companies listed)

The New York Stock Exchange (2,400 companies listed)


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